The procedure of connecting to a remote computer, as an anonymous or guest
user, to transfer files back to your computer. Usually, you are asked to
logon using the identity "anonymous," and to use your email address as a
password. (See FTP below for more information.)
Directory service for locating information throughout the Internet. Used
to locate files on anonymous ftp archive sites, other online directories
and resource listings.
Offers access to the "whatis"
database of descriptions that include the name and a brief synopsis of the
large number of public domain software, datasets and informational documents
located on the Internet.
You can access Archie by email
to one of these addresses:
Put the word HELP in the body of your mail for instructions.
To access Archie by telnet,
just turn the addresses above into telnet addresses, like in this example:
Archie is also available from the following Archie Web server page:
ASP (Active Server Pages)
Dynamic ASP scripts add user interactivity and convenience to web pages.
The result is programmable web pages that mix HTML, ODBC database reading
and writing, and other services.Active Server Pages script resource:
Internet's data flows on high-speed lines called backbone lines. A high-
speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network.
The term is relative as a backbone in a small network will likely be much
smaller than many non-backbone lines in a large network.
The amount of frequencies a device can handle. The amount of bandwidth a
channel is capable of carrying tells you what kinds of communications can
be carried on it. In computer-mediated communications, bandwidth is often
used when talking about conference users' capacity for reading, digesting
and responding to conference items.
is short for "roBot" in popular Internet language. Netters also use terms
like IRC roBOTS, Software Agents, InfoBots, Intelligent Agents, World Wide
Web Bots, Wanderers, and Spiders. You'll find a
Bot FAQ file with many links to
more information. There's also interesting information at the UMBC's
A program that lets you view various Internet resources. Netscape and Microsoft
Internet Explorer are popular browsers. Internet browsers let you follow
World Wide Web hyperlinks.
For links to sites where you
can retrieve most popular browser programs,
For more information, see
the Web Browsers
Software that gives your browser programs more power. Visit
this page for a list of your options.
Common Gateway Interface. Used by html writers to let a page communicate
with other programs running on the server. For links to information and
resources, check The CGI Resource
Video Conferencing over the Internet.
A cookie is few lines of text that is part of an http transaction. It was
originally invented to help you navigate the web. When you are connected
to a particular Internet site, the server doesn't actually remember you from
one instruction to the next, much less one visit to the next. The server
therefore sends you a cookie, and uses the information contained therein
to remember your preferences (without bothering you), keep track of items
in your shopping cart, or simply count you accurately as a single visitor
and track your navigation through the web site..
When you retrieve data from
a site using a cookie, the server transmits the cookie to your browser along
with the rest of the html document requested. Your browser stores the
text on your hard disk. When you later retrieve the same Web page, the
cookie is transmitted back to the server. The latter may then send an updated
You can delete any cookies
that are on your disk without harm. However, if you set your browser to refuse
all cookies, then you may be unable to use certain sites to their full
Because the rendering engine
used in web browsers is also woven into email clients and Usenet news readers,
it is possible for someone who sends you email or posts and html article
to a newsgroup to cause your machine to access images on his site when your
read the mail or the article. If the sender customizes the URL in the message
so that it contains your email address, he will also know exactly who you
for more information.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is an Internet tool that separates the presentation
from the structural markup of a Web site. CSS keeps the structure of a document
lean and fast while controlling the appearance of its content.
(Frequently asked questions regarding
Domain Name System (DNS)
The Internet DNS gives names to locations on the Internet, and consists of
a hierarchical sequence of names, from the most specific to the most general
(left to right), separated by dots, for example nic.ddn.mil.
DNS is also a system that
translates a domain name from letters (eg. www.google.com) into a numerical
IP address (e.g. 18.104.22.168). Letters make it easier for humans to remember
and understand things, while computers thrive on numbers. So, these numbers
are used to ensure email gets to the right address, that you get the web
page you requested, and so on.
To check if a domain (web
address) is taken, and who the owner is, try
Popular email system for Windows, MS-DOS and Macintosh computers. Free versions
are available .
"Frequently Asked Questions" are information files about services on the
Internet, and a wide range of other topics. Useful pointers to resources,
and a fairly reliable source of answers that have been tested by real
FAQs can be found all over
the Internet. Several Usenet newsgroups have one specific to their subjects.
Some have several FAQs on different, pertinent subjects.
Browse Usenet's FAQs at
or retrieve them by email (see "WWW by email" in Chapter
12). You can search (and read) Usenet FAQS at
Reference.COM (see Chapter
11) is an efficient way of keeping track of changes in important Usenet
FAQs. For example, try the search term "australia/oz-net-faq" to keep track
of the "Network Access in Australia FAQ."
A program that returns information about registered users on a host that
is directly connected to the Internet via TCP/IP. You cannot use finger to
find user addresses on BITNET or UUCP, or any other networks gatewayed to
the TCP/IP Internet.
Useful before starting chats
(known on the Internet as "talk"), to check your assumption of a person's
email address, to learn more about a person, or to get other kinds of
For finger by email, send
an 3mail to email@example.com.
Put the following command in the body of your mail:
Replace <user@site> with your desired email address, as in
Finger is also being used as a general information system. For example, finger
firstname.lastname@example.org for information about how to search some databases using
finger. Databases include Archie, Internet, Newsgroups, and Postcodes (Australian
email@example.com for weekly U.S. TV ratings according to the Nielsen
rating system, and to firstname.lastname@example.org for 24-hour solar x-ray flare activity
A FAQ file:
Method used by several organizations to protect users from the "unsecure"
network, and disallow unwanted logins or file transfers from the Internet.
An Internet site will be denied a connection if an attempt is made to login
to the firewall server.
Users behind a firewall can
get to servers on the Internet. They can use WWW, Gopher, FTP, and TELNET,
but cannot supply resources through these protocols to people outside the
the Firewalls FAQ
for definitions, justifications, what firewalls can/cannot do, virus, and
other interesting links.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A program for sending and receiving files to and from a remote computer to
your local host. Lets you connect to many remote computers, as an anonymous
or guest user, to transfer files back to your computer. Lets you list file
directories on foreign systems, get or retrieve files. You cannot browse
menus, send email, or search databases using FTP.
The easiest is to use ftp
with a Web browser like Netscape. Just feed the browser the file's location,
in a format like this
The codes after the "//" show first the host name, then the directory, and
finally the file name of the desired file.
Some users type ftp at their
system prompt, login on the remote system, and ask for the file they want
to receive. It transfers to their local host machine. (For more on this,
read under "Internet" in Appendix 1.) Finally, unless
their computer is directly connected to the Internet, the retrieved file
must be transferred from their host machine to their PC.
Where ftp or WWW is not available,
you may also use FTPMAIL (chapter 12).
"For Your Information." A subseries of RFCs that are not technical standards
or descriptions of protocols that are available from
many other sources on the Internet.
Gopher is a tool for exploring the Internet and to find a resource if you
know what you want, but not where to find it. Gopher systems are menu- based
in a top-level subject-oriented way, and provide a user-friendly front end
to Internet resources, searches and information retrieval.
Gopher gets information from
certain locations on the Internet to which it is connected, and brings the
information to your computer. It can get information via other Gophers at
other locations connected to yet other hosts. The Telneting or file transfer
protocols are transparent to the user.
To access gopher services,
run a browser program. The browser reads documents, and can fetch documents
and files from other sources. Some services let you fetch gopher information
by electronic mail (see Gophermail below).
"Common Questions and Answers
about the Internet Gopher" are posted to the Usenet newsgroups
news.answers every two weeks. (See FAQ above.)
Pointers to Gopher sources
may be given in this form:
Name= United States GOVERNMENT Gophers
If your browser cannot use this information directly, try to deduct the
information from the URL line. In this example, it translates into 'gopher
peg.uci.edu 7000' , select peg / gophers/ gov.
If the gopher command is not
available on your system, then you may telnet to the gopher site, and login
as 'gopher' or 'info'.
The gophers of the world,
sorted by country, are at
Also, see Veronica below.
To use Gopher by electronic mail. Messages containing menus and gopher link
information are mailed you in response to your requests. You reply to these
messages and show which menu items you want. Lets you use the Gopher without
having a direct "live" Internet network connection.
Send a message to one of the
following addresses for more information:
If you send a blank message, a help screen will be returned to you.
GopherMail's options include:
Requesting the Gopher menu for a specific host name,
Message splitting after a certain file size (for those with a size limit
on email messages),
Re-using links to selected gopher menus by saving them in a local "Bookmarks"
Binary and Sound Files are sent as uuencoded files.
To perform a search, select
that menu item with an "x" and supply your search words in the Subject: of
your next reply. Note that your search criteria can be a single word or a
boolean expression such as:
computers and (macintosh or ms-dos)
An Internet document created with HTML (the HyperText Markup Language) often
containing graphics, text, and hypertext links to other "pages."
A modular, applet-aware, extensible World-Wide Web browser written in the
Java programming language.
The HyperText Markup Language is used to compose WWW pages. Sources for
information (also, see "WWW" below):
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. Hypertext is text with pointers to other text.
Thus, hypertext is a term used of linking related information.
Some information providers
on the Internet run programs that will let you access hypertext. Examples:
You use a special HTTP browser
program to access the information. Examples: Netscape, Internet Explorer.
The Internet Mail Access Protocol (originally Interactive
Mail Access Protocol) offers easier administration and more power
than the old POP (Post Office Protocol). It let you remotely
manipulate your mailbox on the mail host without having to retrieve it to
your local PC first. You can access email stored on multiple hosts and in
multiple folders on one host.
IMAP allows for the creation
of hierarchical folders on the remote server, where POP3 creates local folders.
Messages can be stored, sorted, filtered, and managed on the server, making
it possible for users to maintain a system of folders that they can access
from multiple computers.
Client programs can resynchronize
mailboxes with the server, so that messages transferred to folders or deleted
will appear in (or disappear from) each client's view. All clients display
the same messages.
RFC 1730 and
International Standard Top-level Country codes
Top-level country codes derived from the International Standards Organization's
international standard ISO 3166. For a current list, retrieve
E-mail FAQ. It is regularly being posted to the
The Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN) is working on introducing seven new top-level
domains (TLDs) to supplement the familiar .com, .edu. .gov, and so on. The
new domains will be .info, .biz, .name, .pro, .museum, .coop, and .aero.
See IP Address
IP (Internet Protocol)
The Internet standard protocol that provides a common layer over dissimilar
networks, used to move packets between host computers and through gateways
TCP/IP packets are the basic
units of communication across the Internet. The information they carry includes
your system's IP address, the IP address of the server you're trying to contact,
and data communicated (like the contents of a World Wide Web document). Routing
information is added to the packets along the way.
For more information, see
Every machine on the Internet has a unique address, called its Internet number
or IP address. Usually, this address is represented by four numbers joined
by periods ('.'), like 22.214.171.124.
The first two or three pieces
represent the network that the system is on, called its subnet. For example,
all the computers for Wesleyan University in the U.S.A. are in the subnet
129.133, while the number in the previous paragraph represents a full address
to one of the university's computers.
For technical background
information, see Technical information
on the DNS links.
An organization that gives customers access to the Internet via the provider's
computers and connections. (See Appendix 7.)
Internet Relay Chat is a multi-user, multi-channel chatting network. It allows
people all over the world to talk to one another in real-time.
Each IRC user has a nickname
they use. All communication with another user is either by nickname or by
the channel that they or you are on. It requires that you use a service that
has a direct connection to Internet.
A FAQ file, "IRC Frequently
Asked Questions," is regularly posted to the
alt.irc newsgroup. On the World Wide Web, the
most comprehensive IRC help resource is at
Java is two things: a programming language and a platform. See the Java Tutorial
lets you retrieve free applets to use on your website.
Java-scripts.net offers free cut and
Internet Talk Radio. For general information (a FAQ) about the Internet
Multicasting Service radio programs, send email to
A list of archive sites that
make the Internet Talk Radio sound files accessible via anonymous FTP is
irregularly posted to the following newsgroups:
A free operating system based heavily on the POSIX and UNIX API's. It supports
both 32 and 64 bit hardware. Visit
http://www.linux.org.uk/ for information
An automated mailing list distribution system similar to the LISTSERV program
(see below). To subscribe to a LISTPROC list, send an email containing the
following type of command in the body of your mail
SUBSCRIBE <list name> Your name
An automated mailing list distribution system enabling online discussions
of technical and nontechnical issues conducted by electronic mail throughout
the Internet. The LISTSERV program was originally designed for the BITNET/EARN
Usually, you subscribe to
a LISTSERV mailing list by using the command
SUBSCRIBE <list name> <your name>
Example: If your name is Oleg Moskwa, and the list name is KIDLINK, send
an email to the LISTSERV address above with the following command in the
body of your text:
SUBSCRIBE KIDLINK Oleg Moskwa
Note: Some LISTSERVs will reply by sending you a request to confirm the
subscription by replying with an OK and a unique number. After 48 hours (this
can vary) the request is dropped, and the user will have to start over. While
this may seem like a hassle, it is really in your interest. The confirmation
system prevents others from subscribing you onto lists pretending to be you.
Usually, you can get off a
LISTSERV mailing list by using the command SIGNOFF <list name>, as
Important: All subscription commands must be sent to the LISTSERV address,
and not to the mailing list itself. If you send it to the mailing list's
address, the LISTSERV will forward your mail to all subscribers, and nothing
To temporarily turn off mail,
use the command
SET <listname> NOMAIL
Other mailing list programs exist. Some are using the Unix readnews or rn
facility. Others are called MajorDomo and LISTPROC. Commands differ. On some
lists, you must use "UNSUBSCRIBE <LISTNAME>" rather than SIGNOFF.
Some may require that you
ask for permission to join. A central moderator may review your contributions
before mailing, or use them to compile a periodic "digest" for subscribers.
Example: To subscribe to non
LISTSERV mailing lists you may have to send an email message to
LIST-REQUEST@ADDRESS, where "list" is the name of the mailing list and "address"
is the moderator's e-mail address, asking to be added to the list.
If you don't have a TCP/IP connection to an Internet provider, the easiest
way to access the World Wide Web is through Lynx. This text-only based browser
works on any VT100 (ASCII) emulating terminal program using full screen,
arrow keys, highlighting, and can be found on almost any Internet host.
Set your communications software
to vt-100, dial up, logon, and type "lynx" to see if it is available. If
not, try telnet to ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
At the login prompt, enter www and press return to access a Lynx browser.
Online help is available. Note: You can not use this service to access a
random Web address!
If Lynx is available on your
local computer, just type "g" for go, and then type the URL of the document
you want. Type "h" for help.
Even if you have a TCP/IP
connection, you may find Lynx faster than most Windows-based browsers for
some applications. It provides fast navigation of cross-linked hypertext
documents (minus multimedia) over a low-speed dial-up connection. You can
even use it with a 2,400 bits/s modem.
Newer versions of the program
have extensive HTML 3.2 support, supports image-maps and frames.
A program functioning like a LISTSERV. For more information about the Mailbase
at Newcastle University (England), send email to
the following commands:
||(for a general help file)
|send mailbase user-guide
||(for a User Guide)
||(for a list of available forums)
A possibly moderated discussion group on the Internet, distributed via email
from a central computer maintaining the list of people involved in the
Anyone can send a message
to a single mailing list address. The message is "reflected" to everyone
on the list of addresses. The members of that list can respond, and the responses
are reflected, forming a discussion group.
Think of mailing lists as
magazines - you subscribe and unsubscribe as your needs and interests change.
is another program that organizes mailing lists. Commands for subscribing
and unsubscribing are similar to those used with a LISTSERV except that the
name is not given at the end of the subscription line. Further, rather than
sending e-mail to LISTSERV at the site that houses the list, send to
For a list of mailing lists
served by this Majordomo server, send the command 'lists' in the body of
your email message. Add the command 'help' on the next line for a short help
The Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions is a specification that offers
a way to interchange text in languages with different character sets, and
multi-media email among many different computer systems that use Internet
MIME lets you create and read
email messages containing these things:
character sets other than ASCII
enriched text (text with markup commands like <bold> to make it more
other messages (reliably encapsulated)
FTPable file pointers
MIME supports several pre-defined types of non-textual message contents,
such as 8-bit 8000Hz-sampled mu-LAW audio, GIF image files, and PostScript
programs. It also permits you to define your own types of message parts.
For details, check
and the comp.mail.mime newsgroup.
Note: A MIME message received
by someone on a host without MIME installed, may be encoded in a binary format
(BASE64) and be impossible to read. If you have this problem, try the small
free utility that is available through the TOW archive. Send GET TOW.MASTER
(as explained in the preface of the book) for retrieval instructions and
Term used about one or several hosts on the Internet that maintain a complete
copy ("mirror") of selected contents from another host on the net.
Term used for online conferences on Usenet. See Appendix
1 for more.
Usenet netnews are being distributed globally through local servers, called
NNTP servers. You should use a local server. if available, for higher speed.
Reading programs, like WinVN and Netscape, require that you put the address
of a NNTP server in the configuration file. Netscape example:
NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol) is an extension of the TCP/IP protocol
that describes how newsgroup messages are transported between compatible
servers. Lists of free NNTP servers:
Ping (Packet Internet Groper)
A program to test a network connection on the Internet. Used to check if
a connection to another host is available, when your email seems not to reach
Ping sends a message (an ICMP
echo request packet) to a specified host, and waits for a response. It reports
success or failure and statistics about its operation. It gives you the time
taken for your packets to travel across the network too.
On the Internet, the person responsible for handling electronic mail problems,
answering queries about users, and other related work at a site.
Internet's Post Office Protocol version 3.0. An off-line mail client (like
Eudora or Outlook Express) connects to a mail server, as requested by the
user, and downloads all the mailbox data to the client's computer. In the
setup of your Internet mail client application, the IP address of the POP3
server is pointing at the host receiving our email.
By default, once the download
is successful, the client deletes the data from the server, known as the
You create folders in your
email program in which you store individual messages, you add signatures
at the time of composing without the need to store a separate signature file
on your server, and you can compose and read your mail offline with a familiar
RFC 1225 for
details. See IMAP for a popular alternative.
Point-to-Point Protocol. A serial communications protocol for connecting
to the Internet by direct or dial-up lines. PPP systems can receive and transfer
files without having to use the intermediate host as a transfer and rest
stop. It is generally considered to be superior to SLIP, because it features
error detection, data compression, and other elements of communications protocols
not included in SLIP.
A FAQ is posted to the
comp.answers on a weekly basis. A must for
those interested in connecting to Internet via serial lines.
A proxy server is a machine which retrieves documents on command. The advantage
with a proxy server is that it normally caches documents, and makes it
considerably faster to retrieve documents from the proxy rather than directly
from a machine eg., overseas.
Resource Description Framework (RDF)
RDF is a basis for encoding and using data about documents or Web pages which
purports to facilitate the automation of their processing. See:
Software tool that supports transmissions of real-time, live or prerecorded
audio. You can get satisfactory performance using a 14.400 bits/s modem.
The client software is free.
You can link to an Internet
rock-n-roll station (like
http://www.netradio.net/), set it
to play, and then switch to your word processor for some real work while
you listen. RadioTower Control Center
links to radio stations around the world.
The Internet's Request for Comments document series. Working notes of the
Internet research and development community. A document in this series may
be on essentially any topic related to computer communication, and may be
anything from a meeting report to the specification of a standard.
Note: Once a document is assigned
an RFC number and published that RFC is never revised or re-issued with the
same number. There is never a question of having the most recent version
of a particular RFC. It is therefore important to make sure you have the
most recent RFC on a given topic!
You can retrieve most RFC
and search RFC documents at
Shockwave: viewing of interactive multimedia content inside
a Web browser.
Hint: Shockwave files reside
on the hard drive after they've been viewed, in the Internet Cache folder.
You may view them offline with tools like the free and fabolous
Serial Line Internet Protocol. A method for connecting to the Internet. SLIP
systems can receive and transfer IP packets over a serial link, such as a
dial-up or private telephone line.
IP (the Internet Protocol)
is the most important of the protocols on which the Internet is based. It
allows a packet to traverse multiple networks on the way to its final
Access Using SLIP or PPP: How You Use It, How It Works," and the
Client Howto" texts for more information.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The Internet standard protocol for transferring
electronic mail messages from one computer to another. SMTP specifies how
two mail systems interact and the format of control messages they exchange
to transfer mail.
SMTP mail servers do not
authenticate the users when sending mail. Therefore, you can use any SMTP
relay host to have your mail sent.
A command on the Internet, which may remind of IRC, but is a single link
between two parties only.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Communications protocols
that internetwork dissimilar systems connected to the Internet. TCP/IP supports
services such as remote login (telnet), file transfer (FTP), mail (SMTP and
An old FAQ is available at:
You should also take a look at
A program on the Internet that allows you to execute commands on remote computers
as though you were logged in locally. You can browse menus, read text files,
use gopher services, and search online databases. Sometimes, you can join
live, interactive games and chat with other callers. Usually, you cannot
download files or list file directories.
To set up a telnet connection,
you need to know the name of the computer site you want to access and have
a valid user name and password for that site.
The site's name can be in
words, like "VM1.NODAK.EDU," or a numeric address, like "126.96.36.199".
Some services require that you connect to a specific "port" on the remote
system. Enter the port number, if there is one, after the Internet address.
Some telnet sites allow for
guest logins. Guest accounts typically are restricted to the types of actions
they can perform during a session. Although your telnet session is actually
running software directly on the site's telnet computer, you will be running
a program that prevents you from accessing the general capabilities of that
computer. Once you are connected to a telnet site, you will often see a
menu-driven system which is under the control of the telnet site, and guides
you through the actions you may perform at that site.
Note: If you get a return
message saying that the host was unknown or unavailable, first check if your
address syntax was correct. If it is, try later. Also, your telnet address
may have changed.
Another common use of telnet
is for users to be able to log into their computers from remote locations.
In this case, users enter their own user names and passwords and, therefore,
have the same user privileges they would have when logged in without using
Accessing commercial services
like CompuServe via telnet gives you the convenience
and time savings of not having to log off and on as you move from one host
system to another. There is normally no real time cost advantage, unless
your location is closer to an Internet node than any of these services' regular
Telnet is not available to
users who have email only access to the Internet.
URL (Universal Resource
A Universal Resource Locator is the address of any multimedia resource on
the Internet. A sort of standardized description of the location of a given
network resource, and the protocol used to access the resource.
A URL may point to a WWW page
file (an HTML file), a GIF image, an MPEG movie, an AU sound file, a ftp
file or directory of files, a gopher menu, a Usenet news group, a telnet
port, and so on. URLs identify the type and location of network and local
Many users with interactive
connection to the Internet, use remote network resources through local programs.
These programs are called local clients, and there are such programs for
anonymous ftp, irc, Mosaic, WWW, and more.
The local clients programs
often require a terse, machine readable resource addressing format, called
"Universal Resource Locater" (URL). It is a draft standard for specifying
an object on the Internet, such as a file or newsgroup.
Example using WWW: The URL
format resource address is
This tells us:
the tool: http (see above)
the host: login.eunet.no
the path: /~presno/index.html
The first part of the URL, before the colon, specifies the access method.
The part of the URL after the colon is interpreted specific to the access
method. In general, two slashes after the colon show a machine name (machine:port
is also valid).
A Gopher example: URL uses
The URL tells us:
the tool: gopher
the host: nutmeg.ac.uk
the path: archive/uunet/archive/Health.Care/report
the file: forward.txt
A ftp example, showing site, directory, and file name:
A telnet example:
The general format is: telnet://[<user>@]<host>[:port]
A newsgroup example:
A file example, showing site, directory, and file name:
A global bulletin board, of sorts, in which millions of people exchange public
information on every conceivable topic. For more information, see
See Appendix 1.
Virtual Memory System. A multiuser, multitasking, virtual memory operating
system for the VAX series from Digital Equipment.
Routers are the pathfinders of the Internet. Your stream of packets may pass
through large numbers of routers before they reach their destination.
are also called Browser Message Boards. They are conference systems using
Web technology. Users must visit a particular website for each web forum
to read messages from others and post their own.
for a list of BBS Sites on the Internet, including Web browser message boards.
Several Web forums are indexed at
The Windows Socket standard. An application programming interface (API) designed
to let Windows applications (such as a Web browser) run over a TCP/IP network.
Requires a direct connection
to the Internet, or access to a SLIP, or PPP server. With Winsock, you can
simultaneously run several applications that make use of the Internet.
There is a fine introduction
to Winsock in the
alt.winsock FAQ. The Winsock Application FAQ can be retrieved by email
to info@LCS.com, Subject: FAQ.
For more information, check
out the newsgroup
WWW (World Wide Web)
A global information service that provides top level access down to documents,
lists, databases, and services. It includes resources such as FTP, and
To access the Web, use a browser
program (often referred to as a "client." The browser reads documents, and
can fetch documents and files from other sources.
For a comparative list of
Graphics Web browsers, go to the
WWW Servers Comparison Chart
page. For DOS based Web browsers and tools, see
If at all interested in the web's history, you must visit
The Scout Toolkit
page will help you identify the network tools most appropriate for
your needs. Netscape and Microsoft Explorer are not the only browser programs
that will let you use the web. For example, Lynx may be good for some dial-up
users with slow access to the Internet, or for users with old computers.
Web pages may be retrieved
by electronic mail (Chapter 12). These services are
mostly for retrieval of text. Generally, most of them cannot retrieve large
files containing graphics, sound, or other types of binary files.
For comprehensive information
about the web, start at http://www.w3.org.
A Word Wide Web
Frequently Asked Questions file about WWW is available, while updates
are posted to news.answers,
the number of hosts providing a Web service (http service) on computers connected
to Internet. Here's some figures showing the growth:
||# of Web sites
In January 2000, Inktomi and the
NEC Research Institute claimed there were more than one billion unique
documents on the Internet on 6,409,521 servers (around 64% of the number
reported by Netcraft).
For a list of mailing lists
and Usenet News groups related to WWW, visit
The Web Developer's Virtual Library
is a must for Web page developers. Topics span Authoring, Annotation, CGI,
Database, Forms, HTML, HTML Editors, Imagemaps, Images and Icons, Java, MIME,
Perl, SGML and CyberVR to Mail, News, Protocols, Security, and much more.
There's a collection pointers
to tools, technical documentation, and standards, both current and under
development, for World Wide Web and the Internet in general, is at
and you should also visit The
Run your web pages through
Bobby, a free web-based service
that will help you make web pages accessible to people with disabilities.
It also finds HTML compatibility problems that prevent pages from displaying
correctly on different web browsers. The
Making Accessible Web pages tips page is translated into many languages..
Also, make sure you visit
the Best Viewed with any
Browser Campaign, and its competitor,
You may want to start with the "Internet Services FAQ" (see FAQ above).
contains information about network tools and information resources like Archie,
Gopher, Netfind, and WWW.
Internet Glossary Project (NETGLOS) have terminology definitions
in Bahasa Indonesia, Brazilian, Dutch, German, Spanish, French, Hrvatski,
Hebrew, Portuguese, Norwegian, Zhongwen, English, and some other languages.
"Connected: An Internet
Encyclopedia" is a large technical reference to the protocols that
run the net.